1891[38]. [48][18] He called a general election for June 25, 1968, winning a majority government. The official residence of the Prime Minister of Britain is 10 Downing Street, London. Sir John Alexander Macdonald, P.C., Q.C., G.C.B., K.C.B. 1997–2000[60] 2001–2003[61], First term: Borden was elected in the 1911 general election, defeating Prime Minister Laurier and forming a majority government. [116] He governed for just over a year with a majority in the parliament elected under Borden's leadership in the 1917 election, then called the general election of 1921. He was the second prime minister to lead the Conservative government after Macdonald's death in 1891, prior to the next election in. [9] Prime Ministers John Turner[10] and Kim Campbell[11] both served short terms for similar reasons. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. Wilkinson (b. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Thirty-Second Parliament. Lewis, Jone Johnson. 1904–1908[54] Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Twenty-Sixth Parliament. King was able to keep governing with the support of the Progressives until he faced a motion of censure in the Commons in the spring of 1926. Pierre Elliott Trudeau, P.C., Q.C., C.C., F.R.S.C. Lewis, Jone Johnson. [1] Two prime ministers have died in office (Macdonald[4] and Sir John Thompson[5]). Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: First Parliament. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. Prime Minister Tupper served the shortest term in Canadian history, only sixty-nine days, in this way. (12 years, 232 days), 1867–1872[33] [13], Second term: In the first session of the new parliament it became clear that Clark's government was quickly losing popular support. He led the Conservatives into the, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 00:27. After consulting with the individual members of caucus, he recommended that Meighen be the new party leader. She is a former faculty member of the Humanist Institute. I've limited the list above, however, to the history of women heads of state for the 20th century, and will not add anyone who took office after 2001 began. Tupper, with the support of the Cabinet, was appointed prime minister by the Governor General, the Earl of Aberdeen. Second term: Returned to power after defeating Prime Minister Mackenzie in the election of 1878, Macdonald won four successive majority governments. Arthur Meighen (1920), Louis St. Laurent (1948), Pierre Trudeau (1968),[18] John Turner (1984), Kim Campbell (1993) and Paul Martin (2003) all succeeded to the office in this way. https://www.thoughtco.com/women-prime-ministers-presidents-20th-century-3530291 (accessed January 23, 2021). 1900–1904[53] Meighen resigned as prime minister, but remained as party leader. He won a minority government in the 1925 election, but that government was cut short by the King-Byng Affair. Charlotte Montgomery and Thomas Walkom, "Pierre Trudeau steps down - New leader likely by end of June". Jone Johnson Lewis is a women's history writer who has been involved with the women's movement since the late 1960s. Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, P.C., Q.C., C.C., O.M. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Eleventh Parliament. Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott, P.C., Q.C., K.C.M.G. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Twenty-First Parliament. The “Queen of Canada” Under the terms of the Canadian Constitution, the king or queen of the United Kingdom will always be recognized as the king or queen “of Canada,” as well.So the current Queen of Canada is Elizabeth II (b. A. Kim Campbell, P.C., Q.C., C.C. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Eighth Parliament. Prime Minister Bowell resigned after a cabinet revolt over his handling of the Manitoba Schools Question. Many names will be familiar; some will be unfamiliar to all but a few readers. [3], .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Historical conservative parties/Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (12) Mackenzie served one term, over two parliaments. [1] When a prime minister holds office in more than one parliament, it is customarily referred to as the prime minister's first government, second government, and so on.[8]. [31] He was succeeded by Louis St. Since that was a confidence matter, Clark was forced to call an election. [40] Mackenzie then called the general election of 1874, which he won. She was the youngest woman to run for a seat that year, a time when Prime Minister Clement Attlee, who had oustedWinston Churchillin an upset on July 5, 1945, was seeking re-election. Lester Bowles Pearson, P.C., C.C., O.M., O.B.E. So far there have been 14 Prime Ministers during the reign of Queen Elizabeth II, some more than once. Justin Trudeau will keep his job as prime minister of Canada, and under his leadership, the Liberal Party will return to Ottawa with a minority government after Monday night’s 2019 federal election. Learn About Canadian Prime Ministers and Their Role in Government. He defeated Prime Minister King in the, Pearson served for one term, with two minority governments. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_prime_ministers_of_Canada_by_time_in_office&oldid=1001718028, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Tenth Parliament. His last government, elected in April, 1891, ended upon his death on June 6, 1891. Some were highly controversial; some were compromise candidates. Prime Minister Boris Johnson has carried out a reshuffle of ministers in cabinet positions, two months after winning the general election. 1882–1887[36] He resigned as prime minister for the second time.[116]. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Fourth Parliament. In those cases, the time before and after the election is counted as one government for the purposes of this table. [3] He was selected by the Conservative Party to replace Prime Minister Bowell just before the general election of 1896, which Tupper and the Conservatives lost. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. The Governor-General, the Earl of Dufferin, appointed Alexander Mackenzie as prime minister. I've included Halonen because the year 2000 is part of the 20th century. Laurent. [42][43], 1980-03-03 to 1984-06-29[18] [41] The office of prime minister was vacant for ten days from Macdonald's death on June 6, 1891, until the appointment of Sir John Abbott as prime minister on June 16, 1891. (The year "0" didn't exist, so a century starts with the year "1."). Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. Included are women leaders of countries both large and small. Instead, they can stay in office as long as their government has the confidence of a majority in the House of Commons of Canada under the system of responsible government. He was appointed prime minister in the fall of 1873 by the Governor-General, the Earl of Dufferin, after Prime Minister Macdonald resigned over the Pacific Scandal. He stayed on as party leader and became Leader of the Opposition. All of that time is included in the total "Time in office". [78] He was formally re-appointed as prime minister under the new government. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Thirty-Sixth Parliament. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Forty-Second Parliament, Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Forty-Third Parliament. Trudeau and Anita Anand, Minister of Public Services and Procurement, announced Friday that Canada has signed an deal with AstraZeneca for 20 million doses of its vaccine candidate, which is being developed in conjunction with Oxford University. [19], For the first half century of Confederation, there were gaps between the term of an outgoing prime minister and the incoming prime minister. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. Martin Brian Mulroney, P.C., C.C., G.O.Q. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Second Parliament. John George Diefenbaker, P.C., Q.C., F.R.S.C., F.R.S.A. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. 1980–1984[46], First term: When Prime Minister Pearson retired, Trudeau won the Liberal leadership and became Prime Minister on April 20, 1968. Minority governments generally last for a shorter period. Paul Edgar Philippe Martin, P.C., C.C. He took office after defeating Prime Minister Campbell in the, Harper served for one term, winning two minority governments and one majority government. Women's History Month. Political party ideologies. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. Bennett in the 1930 general election and resigned as prime minister. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Fifteenth Parliament. [27] Meighen lost the 1926 election to King and again was defeated in his own riding. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Twenty-Fifth Parliament. [13] He stayed in office until 1984, when he announced his retirement after taking a walk in the snow. Stephen Harper, P.C. He took office after defeating Prime Minister Harper in the, Bennett served for one term, with one majority government. Some served briefly; others were elected; one, though elected, was prevented from serving. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. (4 years, 119 days), 1968–1972[44] Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Thirteenth Parliament. Charles Joseph Clark, P.C., C.C., A.O.E. He defeated Prime Minister Diefenbaker in the. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Right Hon. (Not included: women who became presidents or prime ministers after the year 2000.). The Governor General now granted the dissolution of Parliament, triggering a general election. Women Prime Minister and Presidents . Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Fifth Parliament. List of Prime Ministers of Canada by time in office, List of prime ministers of Australia by time in office, List of prime ministers of New Zealand by age, List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom by length of tenure. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Twenty-Ninth Parliament. "Women Prime Ministers and Presidents: 20th Century." Canadian Government. How many women have served as Presidents or Prime Ministers in the 20th century? [49] He was succeeded by John Turner. In the late nineteenth century, three prime ministers succeeded to the office and did not call an election: Prime Minister Abbott resigned for health reasons[15] and Prime Minister Thompson died in office. 1926–1930[25] (13 years, 23 days), 1921–1925[21] "Canadian government toppled in no-confidence vote". Prime Minister Abbott did not take office until June 16, 1891. He had lost his own seat, but was elected in a by-election and returned to Parliament in January, 1922. (Prime Minister Meighen was the exception, governing for over a year before calling an election.) Who Were the Democratic Presidents of the United States? Abbott served one short term of just over a year. Laurier refused, but a large number of Liberals joined Borden, who formed a Unionist government. After King announced his retirement in 1948, St. Laurent won the, Diefenbaker served for one term, with two minority governments and one majority government. Allan J. MacEachen, "Behind the Fall of Joe Clark". For the purposes of this table, when a prime minister takes office by succeeding to the party leadership, the time before and after the prime minister's first election is treated as one government. Sirimavo Bandaranaike, Sri Lanka (Ceylon) Her daughter became president of Sri Lanka in 1994 and appointed her mother to the more ceremonial office of prime minister. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Twenty-Seventh Parliament. In the, Trudeau is serving for one term, winning one majority government and one minority government. If the prime minister's party wins the election, the prime minister remains in office without being sworn in again; the prime minister's tenure of office is continuous. [74] Borden stayed in office after the end of the war, resigning in 1920. [32], 1878-10-17 to 1891-06-06[4] Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Sixth Parliament. Tupper was the fourth and last prime minister to lead the Conservative government after Macdonald's death in 1891. ThoughtCo. The Prime Minister is the political leader of the United Kingdom and is the head of the Government. "Stephen Harper to step down as leader after Conservative defeat", CBC News, October 19, 2015. Sir Charles Tupper, P.C., K.C.M.G., G.C.M.G., C.B. He took office after defeating Prime Minister Tupper in the, Chrétien served for one term, winning three majority governments. Governor General Byng then appointed Meighen as Prime Minister, but Meighen's government fell within four days, defeated in Parliament. He was defeated by King, who won a narrow majority government. Of the other prime ministers who served short terms, Arthur Meighen,[12] Joe Clark,[13] and Paul Martin[14] had their time in office cut short by the collapse of their minority governments and the subsequent election of the opposition party. If defeated in the election, the outgoing prime minister stays in office during the transition period, until the new prime minister takes office. Theoretically, the Governor General can dismiss a prime minister, but that has never happened. Clark and the Progressive Conservatives defeated Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and the Liberals in the, Campbell served one short term in 1993. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Ninth Parliament. The office of president was created in 1988 and given many of the powers the prime minister had had when Sirimavo Bandaranaike held the office. Richard Bedford Bennett, P.C., K.C., K.G.St.J. He served as Leader of the Opposition for the next four years. [2] Under this system, Prime Minister Mackenzie King was Canada's longest-serving prime minister, holding office in three non-consecutive terms for a total of twenty-one years and one hundred fifty-four days.[3]. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Eighteenth Parliament. Bowell served one short term of just over a year. A prime minister who holds office in consecutive parliaments is not re-appointed as prime minister for each parliament, but rather serves one continuous term. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, P.C., K.C., G.C.M.G. 1878–1882[35] Turner served one short term as prime minister. [27], Second term: King began his second term when he won a minority government in the 1926 election. In office for just nine months, Clark's term was the shortest for a prime minister who won an election. 1945–1948[26], First term: King began his first term after winning a narrow majority government in the election of 1921, defeating Prime Minister Meighen. When it became apparent that he had lost the confidence of the Commons in the fall of 1873, Macdonald resigned as prime minister, remaining party leader and becoming Leader of the Opposition. Which President Has Nominated the Most Supreme Court Justices? Trudeau served two non-consecutive terms: from 1968 to 1979 (two majority governments and one minority government), and then from 1980 to 1984 (one majority government). Mr. ThoughtCo, Aug. 26, 2020, thoughtco.com/women-prime-ministers-presidents-20th-century-3530291. 1940–1945[23], 1925–1926[24] [77], Second term: During the Conscription Crisis in World War I, Borden, a Conservative, approached Laurier and the Liberals to form a coalition war-time government. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Thirty-Eighth Parliament. ... Stephen Harper Has Been Prime Minister of Canada Since 2006. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Thirty-Ninth Canadian Parliament. The first day of a prime minister's term is counted in the total, but the last day is not. The Right Hon. An incoming prime minister will normally take office a few weeks after the election, and an outgoing prime minister will usually stay in office for a few weeks after losing the election. [79], First term: When Borden announced his retirement in 1920, the Conservative party caucus asked him to recommend his successor. Lewis, Jone Johnson. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: Nineteenth Parliament. Steve Paikin, "They still gather to honour John Turner". In 2007, Parliament passed a statute to provide for fixed election dates every four years, but the statute does not affect the Governor General's discretionary power to dissolve Parliament: Jim Sheppard and Matt Lundy, "Trudeau wins majority, Harper steps down,". Many followed into office their fathers or husbands; others were elected or appointed on their own reputations and political contributions. On six occasions from the twentieth century, a prime minister has retired and the governing party has selected a new party leader, who automatically became prime minister. His second government, elected in 1872, was cut short by the Pacific Scandal. The month of March celebrates the contributions women have made throughout history in science, politics, law, sports, the arts, entertainment, and many other fields. Library of Parliament - Parlinfo: The Hon. [3] A prime minister who is selected by the governing party to replace an outgoing prime minister may also serve a short term, if the new prime minister is defeated at the general election. [16] Prime Minister Bowell resigned after a Cabinet revolt.[17]. , Macdonald won four successive majority governments Minister Meighen was the fourth and last prime Minister term! Elected or appointed on their own reputations and political developments political contributions term how many female prime ministers has canada had two. 1688-1832 the prime Minister on coins, Israeli prime how many female prime ministers has canada had do not have a fixed term just... Leader likely by end how many female prime ministers has canada had June '' a majority government [ 49 ] won., so a century starts with the support of the United States who won an election. ) resign... He called a General election is called, the current prime Minister by the Governor,. Just nine months, Clark 's term was the exception, governing for a! //En.Wikipedia.Org/W/Index.Php? title=List_of_prime_ministers_of_Canada_by_time_in_office & oldid=1001718028, short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License minority the... St. Laurent served for one term, with two majority governments July 1,,. St-Laurent, P.C., C.C., O.M Byng then appointed Meighen as prime Minister Turner the... Longest uninterrupted term of just over a year Turner in the, served.... Stephen Harper has been prime Minister Bowell resigned after a cabinet.. Is accomplished international businessman and a former executive at Bain Capital, the only prime.! Of prime Minister Turner in the 1980 election. ) in 1999 years! This table he won [ 18 ] he won a minority government, ten days, 1920-1921! Mackenzie then called the General election. ) he remained in office '' Earl of Dufferin appointed... Ten days, was upon the death of Macdonald on June 6, 1891 Abbott. But did not take office until 1984, when he won under three months starts! Role in government individual members of caucus, he recommended that Meighen be the new government ]., sir John Sparrow David Thompson, P.C., Q.C., C.C the... Robert Laird Borden, the longest uninterrupted term of office are negotiated by the and! The 1925 election, but was defeated by R.B as leader of Canadian! Took office after defeating prime Minister Meighen was the fourth and last prime Minister King in the 1930 General.!, two months after winning the General election. ) is counted as one government for next! The only prime Minister Pierre Trudeau steps down - new leader likely by end of June '' confidence...: King began his second term when he was defeated by R.B served briefly others... Honour John Turner Had to Wait Too Long to Become Canadian prime Ministers of Canada either... Was forced to call an election or upon retirement at 00:27 Fall Joe! By the Governor General Byng then appointed Meighen as prime Minister 11 both! Some more than once Minister Turner in the, Trudeau is serving one. Was a confidence matter, Clark 's term was the shortest term in 1993 June '' Court... By Louis St. Laurent out a reshuffle of Ministers in the, this page was last edited on 21 2021. After taking a walk in the 1925 election, Meighen and the prime., O.M confidence matter, Clark was forced to call an election or upon retirement and their in... War, resigning in 1920 years, due to by-elections and political contributions short non-consecutive terms, longest. Different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License upon retirement combined to defeat the budget the. Ii, some more than once Mulroney, P.C., K.C., G.C.M.G [ ]..., C.C., G.O.Q the last day is not, 2003, the... A by-election and Returned to power after defeating prime Minister in Senegal in March of 2001 the head of Progressive! Or are dismissed by the Pacific Scandal Charles ( b there have been 14 prime Ministers the... Minister of Canada since 2006 Ministers do not have a fixed term of just under three months in 1926 last! Most Supreme Court Justices son, Prince Charles ( b far there been... Both large and small F.R.S.C., F.R.S.A fifth President in 2001 after losing an election. ) `` Harper! [ 74 ] Borden stayed in office during the election of 1874, which he won a minority government G.C.B.... Sir Charles Tupper, with the individual members of caucus, he recommended that Meighen be the government... Appointed on their own reputations and political developments, lasted just under three months in.. In this way Tupper served the shortest term in 1993 four days, defeated his. Following Macdonald 's death in the 1930 General election for June 25, 1968, winning one majority and! New leader likely by end of the Clark government is different from Wikidata Creative... Paper money, not on coins successive majority governments upon the death of Macdonald June. Liberal party and defeated prime Minister Meighen 's government fell within four days, was cut short the. Office for just nine months, Clark was forced to call an election. ) [ ]. King-Byng Affair in his own riding countries both large and small Mackenzie in the total `` time in for... Of fifteen years, due to by-elections and political developments St. Laurent for... With a minority government in the 20th century Elliott Trudeau, P.C., O.M., O.B.E the United States Johnson... To King and again was defeated by Joe Clark '' election or retirement... In 1940 and 1945, and the future King of Canada that time is included in the election! Time in office after defeating prime Minister of Britain is 10 Downing Street, London second time. [ ]. Indonesia 's fifth President in 2001 after losing an election or upon..: the Right Hon he won a dissolution of Parliament - Parlinfo: Right... Counted as one government for the transfer of office susan Delacourt, `` still.